Abstract:Sociality in animal populations is a continuum, and interactions between conspecifics are meaningful for all vertebrates. Ignorance of social structures can lead to misunderstanding their ecology and, consequently, to unsuccessful species management. Here, we combined genetic and spatial data on radio-collared brown bears (Ursus arctos) to investigate kin-related home range overlap and kin-related centroid distance within central and eastern Finland. We found that the extent of home range overlap was positively correlated with relatedness among adult females. In addition, home range centroid distance decreased as relatedness increased. Moreover, there were significant differences between the two studied regions: female brown bears in central Finland were more closely related to each other, and the sizes of their home ranges were larger than those in eastern Finland. The smaller home ranges and lower degree of relatedness among bears in eastern Finland might be a result of the substantially higher hunting pressure in the area, combined with immigration of new unrelated individuals from Russia.Keywords: home range overlap; relatedness; kinship; social structure; Ursus arctos
In this work, one proposes a model to evaluate the optimal deployment of Centralised Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture elements, i.e. Base Band processing Units (BBUs) and fronthaul links, in a brown-field scenario, in which traditional base stations are already deployed and a physical network is present. The proposed optimisation framework jointly optimises BBU placement and accesses network infrastructures deployment. It clusterises the Remote Radio Heads in the scenario through a Multicommodity Flow approach and solves the minimum cost fronthaul network deployment through a Rooted Delay-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree approach. Optical fibre and microwave links are considered as fronthaul infrastructures. The proposed optimisation framework is validated through a comparison with a theoretical output for a canonical scenario, being afterwards applied to a real scenario. A cost analysis for different scenario configurations is presented, and trade-offs and guidelines for a cost optimal deployment of C-RAN are provided. The analysis of results for the real scenario of the city of Lisbon and its surrounding areas shows that the delay budget in the fronthaul network highly impacts on capital expenditures as well as on operational ones. It is shown that a larger delay budget enables an annual cost reduction up to 72% in urban areas and 54% in rural ones.
Economical cost A key aspect for the design of C-RAN is represented by CAPEX, which is considered to be related to the deployment of links, BBU pools and RRHs. In a brown-field scenario, a new link increases CAPEX, while the usage of an already deployed one contributes to OPEX. OPEX includes power cost, personnel expenses and site maintenance and rental and is taken as a percentage of the related initial deployment cost (i.e. CAPEX).
This work proposes an optimisation model for the deployment of C-RAN architectures in a brown-field scenario where traditional BSs are already present. The proposed model minimises deployment costs by optimising BBUs placement as well as links deployment. The proposed optimisation framework takes physical, network and economic aspects into account. The clusterisation of RRHs is modelled through a Multicommodity Flow approach. The links deployment reuses existing access infrastructures and interconnects BBUs and RRHs through a Rooted Delay-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree approach, where the delay constraint is given by the BBU-RRH maximum round trip transmission budget.
Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that most often develops on areas of skin exposed to the sun, such as the face. On brown and Black skin, basal cell carcinoma often looks like a bump that's brown or glossy black and has a rolled border.
Diatoms can be found in both freshwater and saltwater. You can identify brown algae if you notice a brown-colored coating on the surfaces of the glass, aquatic plants, or decorations of your aquarium. Diatoms may appear darker in color in areas of the tank that get a lot of light.
Nitrates are a by-product of the nitrogen cycle, in which fish waste and other decaying plant matter release ammonia and phosphates. Beneficial bacteria in the aquarium's filter media will convert the ammonia into nitrites, and then finally nitrates. If there are not enough plants in the aquarium and nitrogen levels are high, diatoms will begin to thrive. The brown algae is highly likely to flourish and spread across the surfaces of the tank, substrate, and decorations under these circumstances.
Although it's known for disappearing after the tank is cycled, diatoms are an incredible eye-sore. What if there was a way to keep it from spreading, or even showing up in the first place? Here are 7 ways to prevent brown algae in the fish tank:
One easy way to combat brown algae in your fish tank is to add more aquatic plants! The plants will compete against the diatoms for essential nutrients. If the plants are kept under ideal conditions (i.e. under sufficient aquarium LED lighting, in nutrient-rich soil, CO2, etc.) then they have a better chance at starving off the diatoms from the nutrients.
The process of reverse osmosis (RO) produces highly pure water that is free of chemicals, toxins, and water hardness. You can prime the water the be regenerated into the exact parameters you desire for your fish tank. Many hobbyists mix both conditioned tap water and RO water during water changes to create the right balance in their tank. By doing this, it helps lower the amount of nitrate and/or silica in the water, which will lower the chances of brown algae or diatoms forming in the aquarium.
Ensure that your aquarium plants are getting the right amount of light (at least 6-8 hours) and nutrients to outcompete the diatoms. The proper planted tank lighting schedule is typically no more than 8 hours and no less than 6. It has been argued that brown algae thrives in areas with low light conditions because they can easily outcompete the live plants in your tank that are struggling for resources.
Dermoscopy is useful to distinguish pigmented basal cell carcinoma from other pigmented lesions. There are specific features that help to distinguish these. Pigment may be grey, brown, blue or black. They are rarely completely pigmented in white-skinned individuals.
My eyes are like my Dads. The were brown when I was young. But in adulthood, the have become more and more hazel the older I am. My moms are blue, and both sisters are blue. My husband are dark brown. His moms are black, his dads are blue. I have 8 kids. 7 with brown to dark brown, and a 3 month old that looks like maybe they might go blue. I hope!!!!
I was born with baby blues (mum has blue, dad has hazel) but during primary school my eyes would change colour each day (blue, to green to hazel) each day was a different eye colour until they stopped. I now have hazel eyes with more yellow than usual and a dark blue ring around the outside. My fiancé also has hazel eyes but his sometimes look light brown.
My children were both born with bluish gray eyes. Every day they became more and more gray. From the time they were 2 months until they were almost 2 years, they had gray eyes. Then they got brown speckles in their eyes and by the time they were 2, they had brown eyes. My grandchildren had dark brown eyes as soon as they were born.
my husband has light bluish green eyes and I have hazel oldest was born with light blue eyes now is like husbands eyes second one was born with sapphire blue eyes and became light blue third one was born with dark grey eyes and turned brown pretty quickly with a hint of green in them 781b155fdc